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Full text of "Kacike Journal"

Journal ai Caribbean Amerindian Histon-^ and AnlhrnpollUi 



KACIKE: Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Antfiropoiogy ISSN 1562-5028 
Special Issue edited by Lynne Guitar 
NEW DIRECTIONS IN TAINO RESEARCH 
http://www.kacike.org/Current.html 



Archaeology and Rescue of the Aboriginal 
Presence in Cuba and the Caribbean 



By Dr. Jorge Ulloa 

The Caribbean is made up of a 
diversity of liumans united by multiple 
socio-economic processes, where the 
introduction of African slaves, with their 
fan of cultures and hues, has been the 
weightiest event that defines the cultural 
particularities. To it is joined the super 
dimension of the influences exercised by 
the European powers, which has served 
to create supposed frontiers among the 
Caribbean Hispanic, English, French, and 
Dutch. The exacerbation of both points of 
view leads to the creation of distorted 
images or alignments with concepts of 
exclusive or excluding identities. The 
masquerading of cultural features 
engendered since those earlier moments 
of conquest, or their superficial and 
schematic valuation, have influenced a 
good deal of the studies about the history 
of the Caribbean and especially of Cuba, 
forcing them to turn about a single axle-- 
the socioeconomic and emerging 
processes of one phenomenon, 
plantation slavery. 

The plantation has been one of the 
fundamental heuristics to define the 
historic bases of the Caribbean peoples, 
seen by some as particular expressions 
of this phenomenon, where the historic 
differences were engendered in previous 



centuries, just as its aboriginal 
contribution gives way to a model of 
society considered common from a 
certain moment throughout the 
Caribbean. 

In order to think about the 
aboriginal aspect, it is important to leave 
to our judgment two essential questions: 

1. The absence of a strong 
indigenous population in the 
modern Caribbean (19"" and 20"" 
centuries) limited by a cultural 
action and political consolidation 
directed by the rescue of its 
connections to history. 

2. A rescue carried out by 
archaeology, which influences the 
correct form of conceiving the final 
proposition of this discipline and 
the supposed theories by which it 
is carried out. 

The first of these essential 
elements has antecedents in the 
moments after the actual conquest when 
the nascent Creole oligarchies began, 
with marked interest, the negation of the 
aboriginal presence with the aim of 
expropriating their lands. This 

contributed to the erasure of the 



Dr. Jorge Ulloa - Archaeology and Rescue of the Aboriginal Presence in Cuba- 



aboriginal connection to the Caribbean 
societies, and limited tine references to 
tine existence of objects or terms tliat 
recalled their culture as a stage 
fortunately overcome and perceptible only 
by means of elements near to their 
supposed original function. 

In this sense it is important to keep 
in mind the primacy that is within the 
studies of history and anthropology in the 
area that has had the slave-owner 
controversy, almost always translated as 
or reduced to the racial white-black 
contradiction — with emphasis on the 
study of the plantation — which generates 
the relevant cultural mechanisms that 
characterize the Caribbean today. 

To evaluate the studies of the 
contribution of the aboriginal societies in 
the case of Cuba it would be important to 
think about starting from the 
methodological proposition put forth by 
the researcher Joel James in his work. La 
muerte en Cuba, especially that which he 
defines under the concept of "limits." The 
limits, according to James (1999), are 
instants of saturation created or signaled 
by harmonious agreement among all the 
defenders of a thesis, who comprise a 
social process like an active forge of 
human concurrence. These are moved 
by a sense of successive articulation with 
such rigor toward the point where all the 
over-determined constituent parts 
converge that none of them would be 
recognized as a specific entity. From this 
point of view, the limits are inevitable and 
are the essence of the social dialectic; 
furthermore, they have the capacity of 
referencing the past in the present. 

In this perspective, to talk of the 
death of the pre-Columbian cultures not 
only takes into account the traumatism of 
the conquest by its violent effects but also 
its effects in the plane of culture, by the 
substitution of a system of values that 



evolved throughout various centuries or 
millennium. Nonetheless the extinction is 
evaluated starting from the point of fusion 
or mestizaje, that is, by the reversion to a 
limit achieved within the Creole societies 
of the principal values of the pre- 
Columbian groups. Death not only acts 
as an eraser but as a substitutive 
mechanism for the cultural dimensions 
and quantities, which translated them to 
another space and legitimized them. It 
was those mechanisms of hybridization 
and transculturation that gave culture the 
capacity to reform itself and resurface, in 
order to keep itself alive and free itself 
from the sense of exclusivity — that 
truncated its ownership of the nucleus of 
identity— which propitiated the interrupted 
character of Cuba's history and its total 
ownership of the period called pre- 
Columbian. 

The physical absence of the 
aboriginal does not imply that their forms 
of approximating reality will be absent 
from the collective unconscious of the 
Caribeiio, many times through intangible 
or cloudy paths, if one tries to find them in 
a traditional empirical manner that intends 
to recall this culture via immoveable or 
enclosed lines. The search in the plane 
of the present culture ought to be marked 
toward elements or expressions 
legitimized with other apparent origins 
and stir up a depth of manifestations of 
phenomenon that supposedly have come 
aboard since their pristine expression. 



The rescue of the past starting with 
archaeology 

Since the first decades of the 20'*^ 
century, the eminent archaeologist and 
historian Vere Gordon Childe maintained 
that archaeology was a social science 
and as such ought to contribute to the 



© 2002, Jorge Ulloa 
KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology 
ISSN 1562-5028 - http://www.kacil<e.org 



Dr. Jorge Ulloa - Archaeology and Rescue of the Aboriginal Presence in Cuba- 



understanding of history. Upon this base 
it was considered that history was 
singular in that it could be analyzed 
scientifically to permit the establishment 
of useful rules in order to program the 
future. 

Despite the early declarations of 
the notable researcher, one of the 
essential problems which trips up the 
discipline of archaeology today in the 
Caribbean context, including Cuba, is the 
full recognition of its social projection. 
Into it enter elements of theoretical 
classification and the conception of an 
assumed discipline which is practiced in 
an ethereal academia and disentails the 
most immediate problems, or as an 
evaluative science, descriptive of cultural 
variability with only diachronic 
backgrounds. 

In this point of view, archaeology is 
converted into a negation of the past, and 
its work decontextualizes the societies 
that it studies, creating the impression of 
science that is uncompromised or without 
compromise by those who practice it, 
which reduces it in the worst cases to the 
plane of technical collector and 
conservator of pieces about petrified and 
conquered cultures. 

This is a current that still underlies, 
consciously or unconsciously, Caribbean 
archaeology-recovering evidence from 
ancient groups with the hope of 
eventually explaining their cultural history. 
Although it is impossible to deny that 
archaeologists have improved and have 
notably enriched their techniques of 
collection and classification, the greater 
part of the investigations still tend to 
revolve around the coordinates of object, 
time, and space, conforming to 
sequences and cultural areas assumed 
as cultures and whose formation is the 
final objective of the researcher, which 
further perpetuates archaeology in the 



status of descriptor or in the majority of 
cases classifier of settlements from which 
to automatically extrapolate the features 
of an original construction or new finds. 

The major emphasis on material 
archaeology, especially on ceramics, is 
one of the essential factors that influence 
the conceptions of an archaeology limited 
to concepts of culture underpinnings in 
proposed theories such as historical 
particularism and functionalism, where 
the chronological descriptive aspects are 
above their consideration as concrete 
expressions of the activities of the men 
who live in societies and change 
historically. 

The repercussion of this situation 
at the social level of the discipline has 
fostered an archaeology or a rescue of 
the aboriginal that expresses an apparent 
compromise with the national histories 
and expresses the alienation of scientific 
knowledge and the generation of bad 
conditions through the anxiety caused by 
competition in the intellectual market. 
Archaeology and rescue in this case only 
serve the function of the museum 
collecting paradigm, an expression of the 
social unfinished model or non-functional 
model from which emerge works of 
surprising and exotic art through which 
primitive peoples pass, 

decontextualizations of a social process 
that is the base of the present national 
history. 



Rescue and archaeology — the Cuban 
case 

The recognition of the "aboriginal" 
as something of a prior time and the 
much debated question of the Spaniards' 
right to control the Island have been 
perpetuated since the beginnings of 
archaeology in Cuba, which was 



© 2002, Jorge Ulloa 
KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology 
ISSN 1562-5028 - http://www.kacil<e.org 



Dr. Jorge Ulloa - Archaeology and Rescue of the Aboriginal Presence in Cuba- 



generated in the 19'^ century and 
sketched a dichotomy more or less 
transparent about the discipline since its 
dawning on the island. 

In the 20'^ century, the rescue of 
pre-Columbian cultures by archaeology 
took form with new scientific reasons that 
were translated in such a way as to 
broaden the discipline and promote the 
development of an assimilated historic 
vision of the aboriginal as an essential 
part of it, not just as an initial anecdote. 

Researchers like Felipe Pichardo 
Moya and Fernando Ortiz are the most 
marked in these considerations of re- 
valuing the limits of traditional 
historiography through their subjugation 
of the chronicles and by the way they 
legitimated the search for the aboriginal 
contributions to the national formation, 
which defines the real fact of their survival 
in the most archaeological plane. Both 
researchers systematized information 
about the evidence and historical 
foundations in order to clarify the indexes 
of transculturation as a proof of the 
complex and diverse cultural relations. 

In this period, archaeological work 
was organized as much on a normative 
methodological level as an institutional 
and legislative level. Scientific groups 
were created as was the National 
Commission of Archaeology as an 
institution capable of supporting the 
rigorous scientific publications and 
connecting the Cuban labors to those of 
the international organizations. 

Nonetheless, the most outstanding 
achievement of this period was the 
culmination of the field work and an 
important accumulation of information 
that was achieved not exactly around a 
base of total scientific rigor, but around a 
base of cooperation among professionals, 
hobbyists, and collectors. Among these 
works or in many of these works is the 



genesis of the real local museums and 
the initial extension of the work of 
research across the entire country. 

In this period, some Cuban 
archaeologists like Carlos Garcia Robiou, 
Rene Herrera Fritot, and the same 
Pichardo Moya achieved nuclear 
archaeological conceptions of great 
importance for the Antilles, founding, 
considering the limited resources, a type 
of exemplary intellectual position that 
made it more independent, while at the 
same time helped to promote global 
advances in archaeology and to form 
particular conceptions for it. The success 
of this archaeology, or at least of its most 
distinguished representatives, should not 
be measured only with respect to the 
work of North Americans, especially 
those of Irving Rouse, but alongside the 
achievement that these results were 
assimilated and attempted to open new 
facets of research, in order to provide 
more depth of understanding and to more 
closely address the problems of that 
stage in Cuba and the Antilles. 

Since 1959, various things 
changed for Cuban archaeology, many of 
them contributing to a qualitative leap in 
the discipline while in another sense, the 
theoretic sense, a certain stagnancy was 
produced that doesn't take into account 
many of the creative contributions of 
other Caribbean, Latin American or North 
American archaeologies. It closed itself 
off in a type of orthodoxy that limited the 
investigative dialectic and in many cases 
produced a species of mixture or 
hybridization among the old conceptions 
of functionalism and the particularism of 
Rouse, with intents to apply Marxism to 
the interpretation of pre-Columbian 
cultures. Some of the most important 
achievements of this period are seen in 
the professionalization of archaeological 
work, which imposed a qualitative leap on 



© 2002, Jorge Ulloa 
KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology 
ISSN 1562-5028 - http://www.kacil<e.org 



Dr. Jorge Ulloa - Archaeology and Rescue of the Aboriginal Presence in Cuba- 



the work of research and above all 
attempted to channel the work of the 
discipline toward the sense of the rescue 
of man and the coming of society. 

Archaeology fundamentally 

revolves toward the improvement of the 
methodologies of research and the 
development of interdisciplinary work with 
better amplitude and rigorousness. The 
major emphasis is observed as much h 
the refinement of the systems of analysis 
as in the techniques of excavation. The 
protection of patrimony and the insertion 
of archaeological knowledge into the 
wealth of Cuban culture and history are 
advances that will receive improved state 
help from this moment on and already 
interest has increased in redefining the 
true contributions, traditionally opaqued 
by lack of knowledge, of the aboriginal 
societies to the processes that formed the 
nation. Despite these undeniable 

advances, it would not be just to evaluate 
the discipline of archaeology in Cuba and 
sketch some of it steps in the present 
without referring to some of the 
theoretical judgments that wrangled with 
the new Cuban archaeology, much of it 
which, in my judgment, still provides a 
basis, with more or less rigor, for our form 
of focusing on research, while others 
have been superceded or are on the way 
to it, from which arises that which is 
known as the birth of a new critical, 
analytical stage that is opening up for 
Cuban archaeological science: 

1. Poor management and 

mechanistics of some categories 
of materialist history, where there 
were frequently cases in which the 
comprehension of a society in its 
relations to dialectic materialism 
was not going further than the 
affirmation of the essential 
character of the economic base or 



its determining role with respect to 
the relations of the rest of the 
social, institutional, or ideological 
expressions. This has provided for 
the creation of archaeological 
schemes that are necessarily 
related to supposed levels of 
economic development and, of 
course, to their respective levels of 
institutional ideological 

development. Profound analysis of 
this situation sketches a repetition 
in other dimensions of traditional 
archaeology, especially in 
reference to the derivative 
schemes of the ceramic styles and 
series, where the most important 
thing is the discovery, and the rest 
of the interpretation is 
preconceived according to a group 
of indicated archaeologists. In the 
case of Cuban archaeology today, 
the most frequent representation of 
this scheme is found in the 
classifications utilized on the 
effects of archaeological censuses 
of the island, where equal to the 
circular schemes circulate an 
essentially chronologic conception 
of advanced socioeconomics. 
2. Reduction of the understanding of 
the history of societies that deal 
with the fundamental cause of the 
contradiction between productive 
forces and relations of production, 
with the aforesaid qualitative leap. 
In many cases the deficiencies in 
this sense are placed obliquely, 
starting from the minute typological 
descriptions of the pieces, minute 
descriptions of the geographic 
environment that the community 
faced, or the capacity to infer 
citations from those of Classic 
Marxism. 



© 2002, Jorge Ulloa 
KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology 
ISSN 1562-5028 - http://www.kacil<e.org 



Dr. Jorge Ulloa - Archaeology and Rescue of the Aboriginal Presence in Cuba- 



3. Fragmentation of the investigations 
or of tine data obtained from tliem, 
wliicli mal<es it difficult and on 
occasions impossible to exactly 
reconstruct the societies being 
studied. The situation is further 
complicated when it deals with 
regions from which only partial 
visions or problems of the research 
are obtained, so that, far from 
enriching the theoretical 
knowledge with the contribution of 
analysis of concrete situations, 
tends to promote the validity of the 
preconceived schemes or has 
created generalizations and 
schemes from a unilateral point of 
view. In this sense it reduces the 
explanatory capacity of a 
descriptive typology scheme for 
regular empiricists, with the 
pretensions of converting them into 
explanatory theories. The most 
eloquent example from Cuban 
archaeology in this sense is found 
in the studies about stonework and 
pottery. 

4. Application of interpretive 
conceptions and methodologies 
used or validated in other contexts 
without testing, on occasion, the 
regional particularities or histories 
of the societies being studied. 

5. Despite having gained in 
conscience, archaeology is not 
disentangled from the traditional 
problems of society and history 
that are still disentangling 
themselves from the essential 
problems of philosophy and 
anthropological theory, by which it 
continues filling brimful an empty 
space, considering that the most 
urgent obligations of the discipline 
do not strengthen it in this sense. 



6. Predominance in research of the 
typological point of view and 
evolutionary chronologies with 
tonalities and hues imposed by 
restrictive typological concepts and 
the assumption of individual or 
regional sequences with which to 
generalize with respect to all of the 
island. 

7. Consideration of the category of 
culture under a diversity of 
meanings with confused and 
ambiguous interpretations, which 
has operated as an instrumental or 
operational category for the 
research, that is, as a created 
instrument with different meanings 
levied according to the logic of the 
researcher, which grants a 
subjective, predetermined content 
by means of his own conscience 
and reasoning. The most eloquent 
examples in the case of Cuban 
archaeology are perhaps those of 
the Mayari proto-agrarian culture, 
late Mesolithic, or communities 
with incipient Neolithic traditions, 
all meanings that were defined by 
characterizing the same 
phenomenon. 

The last is important in order to 
emphasize that, despite the 
achievements of Cuban archaeology, it 
has not achieved a consolidation of a real 
explanatory practice. Although 

contributions of great importance exist, 
you cannot talk yet about a total super- 
actuation of the descriptive schemes. 
The influence of historical materialism 
and dialectic help to comprehend or insert 
a new sense into the scientific work, such 
as the discovery of new resources in 
research — especially economic — 

traditionally ignored or little recognized in 
the studies. Nonetheless, the inferential 



© 2002, Jorge Ulloa 
KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology 
ISSN 1562-5028 - http://www.kacil<e.org 



Dr. Jorge Ulloa - Archaeology and Rescue of the Aboriginal Presence in Cuba- 



level continues being low and lias begun 
to give signs of tine recuperation required 
to leave an opening toward other forms of 
the discipline's thinking and practice. 
Although the intentions are otherwise, the 
process of the reconstruction of archaic 
history is based essentially in the 
completion of schemes of behavior 
starting from typological dates and 
chronologies. The absence of 

archaeology and anthropology from the 
planes of the superior fields, as much as 
the lack of an academic specialization, 
with its teachers and postgraduates, 
which we've barely begun to glimpse, 
influences a good part of these 
deficiencies. 

It is good that the final objective 
and intention of research is clear among 
the majority of us who do archaeology, 
save for exceptions who have not yet 
achieved alignment between their final 
objective and the completion or the 
application of all the passes or stages of 
the investigative process. On other 
occasions a theoretic eclecticism is more 
easily perceived that denotes a parallel 
march among old conceptions of the 
North American archaeology and the 
postulated Marxists and neoevolutionists 
as much as the intents to cross the 
borders of the empiric and recall the 
valiant attitudes of the search for a Cuban 
school of archaeology undertaken since 
the decade of the 50s of the 20'*^ century 
by the most valuable scientists of the 
discipline. 

Finally it would be important to 
signal which we judge to be the principal 
lines of work that Cuban archaeology has 
undertaken in recent years and within this 
new period of opening and analysis. 

Understanding with precision the 
characteristics and magnitudes of pre- 
Columbian iconographic patrimony of 
some regions of Cuba. It is especially 



projects of this nature that have 
experienced a high level of richness. 
This is the case of Banes in Holguin. 

In these next approximations, the 
objectives have been concentrated on 
two basic questions: 

1 . To define a strategy of protection 
and preservation of the endowment. 

2. To compile new information with 
which to confront the study of aboriginal 
communities, especially the 
agriculturalists, which permits us to 
complete our knowledge of all aspects of 
the social and ideological type, beginning 
with the iconography. Studies of this 
nature have, until now, been scarce in 
Cuban archaeology, and regional 
evaluations do not exist that offer a 
broad, carefully referenced body of 
graphics. On the other hand, intents 
have been initiated to surpass the 
descriptive and esthetic reference 
proposals in order to enter into semiotic- 
type studies or more near to symbolical 
archaeology where transformation of 
motives and applied techniques are 
analyzed, toward an understanding of the 
possible social and cultural signification of 
the piece within the context of the original 
societies. The most outstanding among 
these studies are those related to the 
representation of the frog and the crying 
heads (Boinayel) carried forward by the 
researcher Pedro Pablo Godo. This 
tendency also has begun in the studies of 
rock art. 

Studies from a regional 
perspective with the aim of promoting 
new fieldwork and explorations, which 
have resulted in important findings and, 
on occasion, findings that were 
contradictory to the latest ruling schemes. 
This tendency confronts or surpasses the 
prevalent concepts that until some years 



© 2002, Jorge Ulloa 
KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology 
ISSN 1562-5028 - http://www.kacil<e.org 



Dr. Jorge Ulloa - Archaeology and Rescue of the Aboriginal Presence in Cuba- 



back tended to extend generalizations for 
all the island from very limited key points 
(for example Banes, Cayo Redondo, 
Guayabo Blanco, Canimar, Aguas 
Verdes, etc.) which, up to a certain point, 
were coincidental with the criteria of the 
key sites or types for referencing a 
culture. 

The new work along this order, 
more so than the intent to complete 
existing schemes or create new ones, is 
in tune with a perspective of recognition 
of the regional histories and of knowing 
better the individual parts in order to 
transform or better recognize everything. 

In this case, systematizations and 
reinterpretations of the habitational 
dynamic from the point of view of the 
existent housing and the results of new 
information are appreciated, where the 
environmental and climatic components 
have begun to have more weight than a 
simple cold description. 

The promotion of archeometric 
investigations, above all in the field of 
ceramics, which intends to surpass 
critical or textural observations, which are 
the starting point of formal and typological 
estimates. Studies have been directed 
toward delimiting in detail the 
particularities of the technological process 
and pottery making itself, types of basic 
material and their sources, as well as the 
specific use of the recipients. In the 
latter, analysis of residual substances or 
of greasy acids on the exhumed pottery 
stands out, which contributes to a better 
certainty of the essential economic 
activities of the communities and the most 
common types of foods, etc. 

In this same order — from the point 
of the archeometric determinants — 
archaeologists have sought to establish a 
direct relationship among the phases of 
pottery making, the expressions of its 
development in determined communities. 



the origins of the industry, and its 
stratigraphic representation. 

Nonetheless, it compels us toward better 
corroborations and the examination of a 
wider array of samples. This type of 
analysis until now has had a limited 
regional projection or one of isolated 
settlements. 

The studies of Physical 
Anthropology are summarized in the 
following watersheds: 

1 . Systematization of cultural features, 
and anthropologies of distinct regions 
with the aim of establishing a typology 
or a characterization of the forms of 
burial or interments according to the 
conditions, characteristics of the 
community, and the level of 
socioeconomic development. This 
has concentrated itself especially in 
the finding of new and important 
settlements' cemeteries like El Chorro 
of Malta, Cueva Calero, Canimar II, 
Marien II, etc. 

2. The base study of the anthropological 
characteristics of the groups or 
communities called proto -agricultural 
and their comparison with the 
established series for the rest of the 
Cuban aboriginals (pre-agro-ceramic, 
agro-ceramic series). 

3. The development of systematicized 
investigations of aboriginal 
pathologies, such as their 
reoccurrence through observations in 
the context of cemeteries. 

The aboriginal incidence in the 
processes of formation of the Cuban 
identity, where historic studies and 
documents are combined with the results 
of the archaeology. The most important 
cases are the investigations at the base 
of the aboriginal ancestry of the Virgin of 
Charity (Virgen de Caridad) and the 



© 2002, Jorge Ulloa 
KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology 
ISSN 1562-5028 - http://www.kacil<e.org 



Dr. Jorge Ulloa - Archaeology and Rescue of the Aboriginal Presence in Cuba- 



reflections and search for the aboriginal 
component in some of the elements of 
popular Cuban religion. 

Extension of archaeological 
studies with more effort toward the 
themes and humans groups with 
important involvement in the formation of 
Cuban culture. An example is the 
investigations about cimmaronaje (the 
process of running away) and its material 
remains, archaeology of coffee 
plantations promoted by French 
immigrants — Haitians — and archaeology 
oriented toward the restoration of hstoric 
monuments. 

Deep study of key and exceptional 
settlements that provide information 
about the work in material determination, 
such as wood or the stone as well as 
about the systems of settlement and the 
types of abode employed. This is the 
case of the Los Buchillones settlement, 
located to the north of Vila Clara Province 
which have propitiated a replanting of the 
questions and migratory routes of the 
earlier appropriator communities of the 
Seboruco-Mordan type. 

The replanting of some themes 
with new lenses, which is the case of the 



groups or communities defined as proto- 
agricultural, about which their has been 
initiated a critical and fruitful revision of 
the information that proceeds until 
arriving at the analysis of matrixes and 
regional contexts as well as the 
components of their archaeological 
registers. 

To increase the number of dates or 
facts of the existing chronology, which is 
not only important for a valorization of 
Cuba but also is an essential element in 
the comparison and in the insertion of it 
into the Caribbean context, especially in 
the Antilles. 

Displacement from an orthodox 
Marxist position toward a theoretically 
open position and the assimilation of the 
results of other archaeological foci or 
theories. Nonetheless, in our judgment, 
Cuban archaeology is heading toward a 
focus that more overlaps or connects with 
the Caribbean and its interpretations, is 
breaking or jumping out of institutional 
isolation but also interpretative in the 
relation of the phenomena and in the 
analysis of its communities. 



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© 2002, Jorge Ulloa 
KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology 
ISSN 1562-5028 - http://www.kacil<e.org 



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Valcarcel, Roberto, et al. Nuevos reportes arqueologicos en el oeste del municipio 
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Departamento Centre Oriental de Arqueologia, inedito, Holguin, 2000. 

Veioz, Marcio. Arqueologia, Historia e bentidad. en El Caribe Arqueologico No. 3, Casa 
del Caribe, Santiago de Cuba, 1999. 



© 2002, Jorge Ulloa 
KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian IHistory and Anthropology 
ISSN 1562-5028 - http://www.kacil<e.org 



Dr. Jorge Ulloa - Archaeology and Rescue of the Aboriginal Presence in Cuba- 



11 



AUTHOR 

Lie. Jorge Ulloa, Cuban, is an historian 
and arcliaeologist, witli a Licenciatura 
degree (B.A. equivalent) and IVIaster's 
degree in Cuban and Caribbean Studies 
from tine University of tine East, Cuba. He 
is a researclier for tine Casa del Caribe in 
Santiago de Cuba and Coordinator of their 
Annual Caribbean Archaeology of Cuba. 
He has published in a variety of science 
journals in Cuba and the Dominican 
Republic and has recently finished 
publication of his book Early Ceramics in 
Central and Eastern Cuba. He has 
participated in various archaeological 
research projects in his own country and in 
the Dominican Republic. 



CITATIONS 

Please cite this article as follows: 

Ulloa, Jorge. (2002). Archaeology and 
Rescue of the Aboriginal Presence in 
Cuba and the Caribbean. KACIKE: The 
Journal of Caribbean Amerindian l-listory 
and Anthropology [On-line Journal], 
Special Issue, Lynne Guitar, Ed. Available 
at: http://www.kacike.org/UlloaEnglish.pdf 
[Date of access: Day, Month, Year]. 



© 2002, Jorge Ulloa 
KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology 
ISSN 1562-5028 - http://www.kacil<e.org